The team at APEM have extensive expertise and experience in all aspects of aquatic plant ecology, from botanical surveys to advice on determination of ecological status.

APEM are regularly contracted to conduct botanical surveys and to provide expert advice on assessment and management options for determination of ecological status, as well as advising about the sensitive management of aquatic plants from recreational waters to enable fisheries and water sports.

Our aquatic macrophytes identification and assessment services are co-ordinated by our expert team of aquatic botanists, who have individual specialisms covering riverine, lacustrine and estuarine habitats.

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Invasive, non-native species (INNS) are one of the leading threats to biodiversity in the modern world. Our skilled ecologists are experts in the identification, mitigation, control and eradication of INNS in rivers, lakes, canals and estuaries, Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) and Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) throughout the UK and Ireland.

APEM have also consulted on projects from across the globe on projects involving some of the world’s most problematic aquatic weeds, such as floating waterfern (Salvinia molesta) and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes).


Our services include:

  • Water Framework Directive (WFD) assessments
  • River Macrophyte Nutrient Index (RMNI) assessments
  • Mean Trophic Rank (MTR) determination
  • WFD combined element macrophytes and phytobenthos  
  • JNCC full macrophyte surveys as well as bespoke botanical surveys on rivers and lakes
  • Identification and advice on all species – marginal, submerged and riparian
  • Specialist botanical surveys of aquatic habitats from bank, boat and air
  • Condition monitoring and assessment of Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs), natural heritage sites and Special Areas of Conservation (SACs)
  • Surveys and management of nuisance, non-native invasive aquatic plants in sensitive habitats
  • Expert advice to angling clubs, environmental managers and other independent bodies on the management of aquatic plants on their sites
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